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    新濠影汇体育ios下载苹果【krolicks.com】为您提供集团最新官方网站,更高级的VIP服务体验,更多的优惠活动,更快速的存取款时间,专属美女客服一对一服务,赶快注册游戏吧。张北程载凸有限公司(原东营搅梢科贸有限公司)成立于1993年,占地面积51422平方米,彩家园官方手机登录其中生产厂房占地5016平方米,仓库面积占地5730平方米。固定资产3990万元,流动资产8393万元,干部职工共407人,工程技术人员45人。新濠影汇体育ios下载苹果——Analysisofeconomicperformanceinthefirstquarterof2010andprospectsforthewholeyearDRCTaskForceonAnalysisoftheEconomicPerformanceDuringthefirstquarterof2010,Chinaseco,newcircumstancesandissues,suchasthedeclineoftheinvestmentgrowth,theshrinkageoftradesurplusandtheexpansionofemploymentdifficulties,tuations,thepressureofdownturnfacingthee,theas,themacroeconomicpoliciesneedtokeepabalancebetweenmaintainingthesoundandrapiddevelopmentoftheeconomyandguardingagainstpricebubbleandrestraininginflationandthepoliciesshouldbeadjustedattherighttimei,thestructuraladjustmentandthetransformationofthemodeofdevelopmentsoastolayagoodicultiesHaveFar-reachingInfluenceDuetotheimprovedexternalenvironment,exportgrowthhasreachedahighlevel,domesticconsumptiondemandhasgrownsteadily,plusthelowerbaseforthesameperiodof2009,theeconom,investmentgrowthhasdeclinedsubstantially,tradesurplushasfurthershrunkandthep,theemploymentdifficultieshaveshownthechangeoftendenciesinChinaslaborsupply-and-demandsituati010,%,(%).DuringJanuaryandFebruary,urbanfixedassetinvestment,afterallowingfortheriseoftheproducerspricesofmeansofproduction,%,(%).Thesubstantialdeclineoftheinvestmentgrowthismainlymanifestedbythedecreasi,investmentinprojectsoftheCentralGovernmentandofthelocalgovernmentsgrewby14%%respectively,%,,especiallyfromtheprivatesectoroftheeconomy(investmentfromnon-stateunitsexcludesthatfromHongKong,Macao,TaiwanandForeigninvestors),investme%%respectively,beenthemainreasonforthed,stimulatedbytheexpansivefinancialandmonetarypolicies,,%%.Affectedbythis,%%.InFebruaryof2010,,%,stimulusofthepoliciestoinvestmentgraduallyfadedaway,withtheinvestmentgrowthdecliningtotheaverageof2007and2008(%).d,overthefirsttwomonthsof2010China%.TheeconomyoftheUnitedStates,theEuropeanUnionandJapanbegantobecomestableandgo,importsoftheUnitedStates,%,%%respectivelyandJapansimportsincreasedto30%considerableincreaseofimportprices,%,theEuropeanUnionandJapan,theChineseeconomyrecoveredearlierandbyawidemarginandChina,theaggregateimportvolume,imports%,%%,withtherecoveryofChineseandforeigneconomiesanddrivenbytherapidgrowthofdemand,pricesofprimarycommoditiesontheinternationalmarketrosebyawidemarginonceagain,andpricesofChina,pricesofallimportsandthe%,%%a,China%inJanuaryandFebruaryof2010fromayearearlier,,China%,,,,,especiallytheriseofimportpricesofprimarycommodities,e,uncertaintyexistsintherapidgrowthofChinaoveupChinasstocklevels,,growthoftheimportsof“re-stocking”.ConsumptionandinvestmentdemandintheUnitedStates,,thedemandfor“re-stocking”willreducerapidlyandthegrowthofChina,ordersreceivedbyChineseexportenterprisesaremainlyshort-termandemergentorders,suggestingthatuncertaintyexistsinthestrongreboundoftheexportgrowthandtheincreaseofexternaldemand.sgeographicconcentration(1)Manufacturingindustry,,itmeansal,thehigherthegeographicconcentrationoftheindustry.(2)Manufacturingindustrygions.(3)ManufacturingindustrysofthemanufacturingindustryinaregionandcanbeusedtoreflectthelevelofthegeogsmanufacturingindustryFirst,thespatialdistributionofChinasmanuf,themanufacturingindustrysregionalGiniCoefficientindicatesthatin2008,onlythree,%,ofChinas27two-d,%ofall,,,%,theCR4coefficientindicatesthatonlyfour,%,ofallmanufacturingsegmentsinthefirstfourprovinceshadaregionalconcentrationrateoflessthan40%.Ontheotherhand,12,%,ofallmanufacturingsegmentsinthefirstfourprovinceshadaregionalconcentrationrateofmorethan60%.Second,theeastregionisthemainconcentrationareaofChina,,,,theprovincesintheeastregionhadadrasticallyhighregionalconcentrationratethanthoseinthenortheast,,,whichwasfollowedbyJiangsu,Shandong,Zhejiangandotherprovincesintheeastr,whichwasfollowedbyQinghai,Xinjiangandotherprovincesinthewestregionwheretherateswereuniversallyverylow(Table2).Table2RegionalConcentrationRatesandChangesofChinasManufacturingIndustry。

    Accordingtotheabovedefinitions,electrificationisanimportantindicatortomeasurergyconsumedforpowergeneration,theprimaryenergyconsumptionorelectricpowerconsumption,andtheendenergyconsumption,itisinfactamajorexpressionofeconomicdevelopment,industrialstructure,energyconsumptionstructure,,industrialrestructuring,technologicaladvanceandtheexpansionofpower-supplycapacity,thelevelofChina,energystructure,technologicaladvanceandotherfactors,thechangeinthelevelofelectrificatio(1)Thechangeintheindustrialstru,theratioofcoalconsumptiontoendenergyconsumptioninChinasprimary,secondaryandtertiaryindustrieshasbeenonthedecline,while,oil,electricpowerandotherenergieshavedifferentfeaturesintheendenergyconsumptioninthesesectors,thechangeinthestructureofthesesectorshasaconsiderableimpactonthestructureofChinareofnationwideendenergyconsumptionandcoalclaimsthelargestshareofenergyconsumptionbythesecondaryindustry,thechangeinthestrofendenergyconsumption,thechangeinthesoftheenergiesconsumedbythesecondaryandtertiaryindustries,theratioofelectricpowerconsumedbythetwosectorstoendenergyconsumptionhasbeenontheriseduetothnrisingvisibly,theratioofelectricpowerconsumptiontoendenergyconsumptionhasrisenmosttangibl~2006period,%,reaching2,/,%forthe1980~1990period,%forthe1991~2000period,%forthe2001~industryclaimedafairlylargeshareofover70%andthetertiaryindustryandthepeopleslifeclaimarelativelylowshareofabout10%.Thechangeinthestructureofelectricpowerconsumptionindicatesthattheratioofelectricpowerconsumedbytheprimaryindustryhasdroppedyearafteryear,%sistentwi,at81%in1980,%in1990,%in2000,%ngyearafteryear,at10%,%or8percentagepointshigherthanin1980.ZhouHongchun,ResearchDepartmentofSocialDevelopmentResearchReportNo50,2008Withtheconstantincreaseofincomesforurbanandruralresidentsandtheimprovementoftheirconsumptionlevel,thenumberofwastematerials,suchasscrappedcars,wastehardware,worn-outelectricandelectronicproducts,wastepaper,wasteplastic,,beingreclaimedandprocessed,canbereusedorrecycled,whichprovidesamaterialbaseforthedevelopmentofChina,categorization,circulationandprocessingofthewastematerials1,thispaperhassummarizedthepresentdevelopmentofChinasrenewableresourcesindustryandanalyzedtheexistingproblemswithaviewonlayingafoundationfortheformulationofrelevantpolicies.sRenewableResourcesIndustryThepercapitapossessionofmajornaturalresourcesinChinaislowerthantheworldaverage,andthecontraechoiceforrealizingthesustainabledevelopmentofChineseeconomy."Repairandutilizeoldordiscardedthingsandletallthingsservetheirproperpurpose"isafinetraditionoftheChineseworkingpeople,animportantwaytoenhancetheefficientutilizationofresources,aswellasaculturalbaseforthedevelopmentoftherenewableresourcesindustry.1.DevelopmentofrenewableresourcesindustryisjustbeginningtotakeshapeIngeneral,over30yearsofreformandopeningup,withtheconstantimprovementofsocialistmarketeconomy,Chinasrenewableresourcesindustryhasgraduallyexpanded,regionaldistributionmarketshavebeguntotakeshapeandthetechnicalcompetencehasbeenincreased.ThewastereclamationsystemhasRepublicofChina,companiesatvariouslevelsforreclaimingvariouskindsofmaterials(includingretrievalofmetals)andcompaniesunderthesupplyandmarketingcooperativesforcollectingwastematerialsweresetupthroughoutthecountry,,withtheconstantimprovementofChinasmarketeconomy,thereclamationsystemsetupundertheplannedeconomyhasstartedtoshrinkowingtorepositionoftheredundantreclamationworkers,theworkersswitchtootherprofessionsorretirementoftheworkers;andinparticular,afterthecancellationofthematerialmanagementdepartments,thereclamationcompaniesunderthematerialmanagementdepartmentsandthesupplyandmarketingco,farmersenteringcitiesforemploymenthavebeenengagedingreatnumbersinthewastesreclamationsector,andtheprofit-orientedpublicwastesreclamationsystemaimedmainlyatenterprisesorin,000tonsofwastealuminum,400,000tonsofscrapcopperandalmost300,000tonsofleadscdafoundationforthedevelopmentofChina,withthewideningincomegapbetweenurbanandruralresidents,especiallytheupdatingofthedailynecessitiesoftheurbanresidents,someoftheproductsthatfallintodisusearelittleusedorevencompletelyunusedandcanbeutilizedagain,thusbringingaboutthecirculationofthesecondhandgoodsfrombigcitiestomedium-sizedandsmallcitiesandthentoruralareas,whichcanbefeltbytheexistenceofwastereclaiming,,assupplyofresourcesinChinahasbecometight,importofwastemat,insuchcoastalareasasGuangdong,Zhejiang,Jiangsu,ShanghaiandTianjin,importingandunravelingscrapmetalshasgraduallydevelopedintoanindustryonalargescale;provinceslikeShangdongandHebeiarealsoregsHunanProvince,therenewableresourcesindustryhasdevelopedintoasectorwithdistinctivecharacters.Thetechnicalcompofagreatmanysmallandmedium-sizedenterprises,whicharemainlysmallworkshopsorinvolvedinmanualoperationswithrenewableresources,isonalowside,whereassomeenterprisesgrowinglargerandlargerhaveahighertechnicalcompetenceinprocessingandutilizingtherenewabler,jointlywithChineseandforeignscientificresearchinstitutes,theequipmentordevicessuitableforthetreatmentofChinaswastematsrenewableresourcesindustry.velopmentofrenewableresourcesindustryAccordingtorelevantstudies,duringtheTenthFive-yearPlanperiod,therenewableresourcesreclaimedinChinatotaledabout400milliontons,withtheaverageannualrecoveryreaching80milliontonsandtheaverageannualgrowthrateregisteringover12%.In2006,thereclaimedrenewableresourcesinChina,suchasscrapmetals,wasteplasticandwastepaper,,%Reclamationandimportofwast,ironandaluminumcannotberegenerated,thescrapiron,uppliesbutcanalsoreducethedamagestotheecosystemcausedbythedevelopmentofnaturalresourcesandcancutdownthepollutantemissions,soastoematerials,someplaceshavedevelopedintorelevantbasesfortheproductionofrawmaterials,suchasTaizhouofZhejiangProvince,TaicangofJiangsuProvince,QingyuanofGuangdongProvince,GuluoandYongxingofHunaetofsavingenergy,re,steelandaluminiumaswellaswasteplasticconsumeenergyinproductionandareenergy-carryingproducts;andtheycansaveenergy,,;and10,000tonsofwastepapercanbeusedtoproduce8,000tonsofpaperpulp,withathriftof30,000cubicmetersofwood,12,000tonsofstandardcoalequivalentand1millioncubicmetersofwaterandwithadischargeofmorethan900,,%;,%;,%(Seefollowingtablefordetails).10-200米Accordingtotheabovedefinitions,electrificationisanimportantindicatortomeasurergyconsumedforpowergeneration,theprimaryenergyconsumptionorelectricpowerconsumption,andtheendenergyconsumption,itisinfactamajorexpressionofeconomicdevelopment,industrialstructure,energyconsumptionstructure,,industrialrestructuring,technologicaladvanceandtheexpansionofpower-supplycapacity,thelevelofChina,energystructure,technologicaladvanceandotherfactors,thechangeinthelevelofelectrificatio(1)Thechangeintheindustrialstru,theratioofcoalconsumptiontoendenergyconsumptioninChinasprimary,secondaryandtertiaryindustrieshasbeenonthedecline,while,oil,electricpowerandotherenergieshavedifferentfeaturesintheendenergyconsumptioninthesesectors,thechangeinthestructureofthesesectorshasaconsiderableimpactonthestructureofChinareofnationwideendenergyconsumptionandcoalclaimsthelargestshareofenergyconsumptionbythesecondaryindustry,thechangeinthestrofendenergyconsumption,thechangeinthesoftheenergiesconsumedbythesecondaryandtertiaryindustries,theratioofelectricpowerconsumedbythetwosectorstoendenergyconsumptionhasbeenontheriseduetothnrisingvisibly,theratioofelectricpowerconsumptiontoendenergyconsumptionhasrisenmosttangibl~2006period,%,reaching2,/,%forthe1980~1990period,%forthe1991~2000period,%forthe2001~industryclaimedafairlylargeshareofover70%andthetertiaryindustryandthepeopleslifeclaimarelativelylowshareofabout10%.Thechangeinthestructureofelectricpowerconsumptionindicatesthattheratioofelectricpowerconsumedbytheprimaryindustryhasdroppedyearafteryear,%sistentwi,at81%in1980,%in1990,%in2000,%ngyearafteryear,at10%,%or8percentagepointshigherthanin1980.。

    澳门贵宾会网站Globalexpansionhasenhancesstudyshowsthat,duetotheeconomiesofscaleandthesynergyeffect,thesuccessfulmergersandacquisitionsamongpharmaceuticalenterprisescansaveabout15%~25%oftheresearchanddevelopmentcosts,5%~20%ofproductioncosts,15%~50%ofmarketingcostsand20%~50%ofadministrationcostsfortheenterprises(TheMcKinseyQuarterly(VI),EconomicSciencePress,1998.).Globalexpansionhasalsoincreasedtheglobalmarketaccessionbyasmallnumberofkeyphar,thesalesvolumeofsomedozenkindsofkeypharmaceuticalshasaccountedforabout30%oftheglobalpharmaceuticalsalesvolume,ofwhichthetoptenkindsofpharmaceuticalshavemadeupabout10%sdomesticpharmaceuticalenterpriseshasgenerallyshownafastincreaseovernearly30yearsfromover800inthebeg,thevastmajorityofpharmaceuticalenterprisesaresmallinscalewithlimitedeconomicscale,andthewholepharmaceuticalindustryislessthanRMB300,000yuan,stoptenpharmaceuticalenterprisesonlyaccountfor10%orsoofthesalesincomesofallpharmaceuticalenterprises,beingmthesalesvolumeofPfizeralone.(2)TheUnitedStates,EuropeandJapandominatethepharmaceuticalinnovationandChina"newchemicalentities(NCEs)",theinternationallyrecognizednewpharmaceuticalstandard(NCEsrefertothematerialsthathavenotbeenratifiedbythepharmaceutapprovedormarketedbymajorindustrializedcountries.),themajorityofnewchemicalentit,during1986~2005,,therewere327inEurope,287intheUnitedStatesand109inJapan,%ofallnewlydevelopedpharmaceuticalsintheworld;Chinaandothercountriesandregionsdeveloped36NCEsinall,%.By"proportioninAmericanpatentapplications",theinnovationpotentialindicator,theUnitedStates,inarrearofIndiainrecentyears(Table3).Table2GloballyApprovedNCEsduring1986~2005(Unit:piece)ByHanJun,DevelopmentResearchCenteroftheStateCouncilResearchReportNo001,2010Despitetheunprecedentedshockfromtheinternationalfinancialcrisisandtheseriousimpactofnaturaldisasters,Chinas,farmersincomerosefairlyfastforthesixthconsecutiveyear,moremigrantruralworkerswereemployed,ruralsocialundertakingsscoredmajorprogressindevelopment,ruralreformadvancedtangibly,andinpar,thegoodconditionsfacingagricultureandruralareasweremajorachievementsresultingfromtheeffortsmadebyvariousdepartmentsindifferentfields,whichprovidedasolidfoundationforfastandsteadyeconom,theworkconcerningagriculture,rformanceofag,inventoryisabundantandgrain-growingefficiencyislow,thetend,grainproductionwitnessedtwodrasticfallsagainstthebackdrop,signalsarenotstrongandnomeasuresaretakentoguaranteegrain-growingacreage,grainproductionishigh,internationalgrainmarketisvolatileindemand-supplyrelationshipandChinacanhardlychangethef,akeypoingpolicyintroducedin,,China,byrelyingonoldfacilitiesfortoolongatime,hastomakealotofrenovations,,thecountrywillfinditdifficulttostabilizegrainproductioncapacities,,Chinashouldcarryoutfarmlandwaterconservancyworksinabigwayandinparticularitshoulddras,thecentra,allfarmlandwaterconservancyworks,,thestat,inbothabsoluteandrelativeterms,~2008period,farmers%%.,theruralpercapitanetincomewas5,153yuan,%,theurbanpercapitadisposableincomewas17,175yuan,%:1in2002,:,::,farmers%,%ofthe,thepricesoffarmproductsasawholefaceadownturnpressureandboththenumberofmigrantruralworkersandtheirwagelevelarediffi,Chinashouldfirstimplementpricepoliciestosupportcotton,pig,dairy,oilseed,sugarandothermajorproducts,andsecondcontinuetoencour,theiremployme,itistooearlytosaythereisan“overalllaborshortage”.However,thegovernmentshouldstrengthenservicesrequiredforfarmerstoseekemploymentoutsidetheirnativeplaces,Chinashouldincreasesubs,Chinashouldintensifysupportforfarmersintheoldrevolutionarybases,ethnicareas,hankstothestatepolicytoboostruralconsumption,ruralconsumerdemandbecamevisiblyhigherin2009,withtheretailofconsumergoodsbeipossessionofmainconsumerdurableswasfarlowerthanintheirurbancounterparts,surbanpersonalconsumptionstructureindicatethatruralconsumptionisswitchingfromfoodandclothingtohousingandtransportationandther,theruralsaleofhomeappliances,esshouldberaised,theirvarie,supportingfarmerstobuildhomesandimprovehousingco,ruralhousingconsumptionwasabout500billionyuan,%oftotalruralconsumption,%,,thecentralfinanceallocated4billionyuantosupport800,,,homesarestrawandclaystructures,,nandthedevelopmentofdecoration,homeappliance,furniture,“ruralnewhomeproject”islaunchednationwideandifruralroad,watersupply,drainage,sewagetreatment,garbagetreatment,methanegeneration,gassupply,heatsupplyandotherscientific,educational,culturalandhealthfacilitiesareconstructed,itwillgreatlyimprovetheruralenvironmentf,HebeiandZhejiangProvincesaswellasTibetAutonomousRegionhavemadethefirstmoveinthisrespectandaccumulatedexperienceinsupportingruralhousingconstructionwithcredit,buildingmaterial,land,,Tibetb,over200,000familieshavemovedintonew,eParty,conditionsareadequateforChinatolaunchadriveforruralhomeconstruction,whichcanbetakenasanimportantleveragetoexpandruraldem,,power,roadandgassystemsshouldbeimprovedandruralinformationtechnologyapplicationshouldbepromotedinabigway,anewroundofruralpowergridtransformationshouldbelaunched.HanJunLiGuoChinahasmadegreatstridesinexpandingthelandrightofthepeasantsandstimdinfringementoftheirlandinterestsindiversewayshasbeerightoftheland-lostpeasants,thisresearchteamhasconductedasurveythatcoveredmorethan1,000peasanthouseholdsin39villagesinfourcounties(citiesordistricts),wemadeanin-depthanalysisofthereformofthelandexpropsLegalFrameworkforLandExpropriationSystem:LatestProgressThelandexpropriati,thefirstrelativelysystematiclegallegislationonlandexpropriationwastheRegulationsonStateExpropria,theobjeasizetheconsultativenature,insteadofthe"compulsorynature",ofthelandexpropriationandcompensationstandardsandtoemphasizethecompensationtotheland-lostpeasantsshouldbe"fairandreasonable".Intherelativesense,itemphasizedthestatusofthep"leftist"ideologyinthisperiod,littleconsiderationwasgiventotheinterestsoftheland-,,theStateCouncilamendedth,,namelythatthetotalsumoflandcompensationandcompensationallowanceforresettlementshoisingfromlandexpropriationshouldberespectivelyplacedbytheland-expropriatedunits,theland-usingunitsandotherrelatedunitsundertheorganizatio,,theL,buttheamendedlawcontinuedtousetheannualoutputvalueofthelandusedforitsoanceforresettlementsho,itcontinuedtousetheannualoutputvalueoftheexpropriatedlandasthebasefigureforcompensation,,,theStateCounciladopivingstandardoftheland-expropriatedpeasantsandthatlme,thepeasantsmightbecometheequityholdersoftheseproj,thelocalpeoplesgovernmentsshouldincludethepeasants,whobecamelandlessduetolandexpropriation,intothe,thelocalpeoplesgovernmentsshould,whenexpropriatingthelandcollectivelyownedbythepeasants,mustreservenecessarylandforcultivationorarrangeappropriatejobswi,itemphasizedthepeasantsrighttolearnthetruth,introducedahearingsystemandcalledfortheestablishmentandimprovementofacoordinationandadjudicationmechanismtohandlethedisputesoverlandexpropriationcompensationandlaborresettlementsoastoprotectthelegit,thedocumentintroducedtheprinciplethatthelandcompensationfeeshouldbemainlyusedfortheland-expropriatedpeasanthouseholdsandshouldberat,theuseofthecompensationfeebythfLandRegulationissuedlaterprovidedthatthesocialsecuritycostoftheland-expropriatedpeasantsshouldbeincludedintothecostoflandexpropriationcompensationandlaborresettlement,thatthedeficienciesshouldbemadeupbythelocalgovernmentswiththeirincomefromthepayableuseofstate-ownedland,andthatnolandexpropriatio,thepricemustfirstofallbeusedtofullymakeupthedeficienciesofthefundsrequiredtopaythelandcompensationfee,thecompensationallowanceforresettlement,thecompensationfeeforgroundattachmentsandyoungcrops,therelocationcompensationfee,andthesocialsecuritycostoftheland-expropriatedpeasants.新濠影汇体育ios下载苹果重合同守信誉企业市级明星企业,ByLiZhijun,,2008Currently,thedevelopmentofChina,Chinaisnotmuchlaggingbehindthedevelopedcountries,andwhereChinafall,,,Chinahasmaderapidprogressinresearchesonlifesciencesandbio-technologyandhasreachedahigherlevelinstudiesofsuchlifesciencesaspost-genomics,ceandtransgeniccottonandanumberofnewbio-medicineswithindependeaveanimportantstatsbio-industryisbeginningtotakeshape,thenumberofbio-industrialenterpriseshasincreasedrapidly,andtheaggregationhasappearedevidentlyinthedevelopmentofChina,Chinaha,000typesofspecies,12,800typesofmedicalanimalsandplantsand320,000typesofagriculturalsee,thepeople,Chinawillrapidlyincreaseitsdemandforbiologicalresourcesandform,,theworldbio-industryisinitsgrowingstage,andthemonopolyofthebio-tadvantagesandcanwidelyparticipateininternationalexchangeandco-operationintermsofresearchesonlifesciences,bio-technicalinnovationandthedevelopmentofth,Chinawillbuildawell-offsocietyinanall-roundwayandwilllayasolidfoundationfortherealizationofthethird-stepstrategicmodernizationtarget,,thebogicalrevolutionandtheindustrialrevolutionwillhaveonChinaseconomyandsocialdevelopment,giveprominencetothedevelopmentofthemodernbio-industryineconomicandsocialdevelopment,sbio-industryandinlinewithChinascomparativeadvantages,weshouldpersevereinexpandingtheindustryaswellasenhancingtheindependentinnovationcapability,advanceindustrialization,aggregationandinternationalization,quickenthedevelopmentofsuchindustriesasbio-medicine,bio-agriculture,bio-energy,bio-manufacturingandbio-environmentalprotectionandfocusonmakingimportantbre,theimitation-basedpatternishardtochange,thebio-industrialtechnologiescomestillmainlyfromabroad,andthereislittlepossibilityofsignificantgroupinnovativebreakthroughstobemadeinChina,attachgreatimportancetointegrationoftechnologies,devotemajoreffortstodevelopingexperimentalbases,putapremiumontechnicalco-operationamongenterprisesandbetweenenterprisesandthescientificresearchinstitutesbygivingprioritytotrainedpersonnelandintellectualpropertyrights,strivetoestablishanopen,market-orientedandgroupednationalbio-technologyinnovationsystem,takebio-technologicalenterprisesasthemainbodyforfacilitatingtheflowofscientificandtechnicalknowledgeinrelationtobio-technology,furtherimproveChinasabilitytomaketechnicalinnovationsintermsofbio-industry,acceleratetheindustrializationofthescientificandtechnicalachievements,andbringaboutthestrategicshiftofthebio-industryfromimitation-basedindustrytoaniendentinnovationandpromotetheco-operationbetweenenterprises,universitiesandandresearchinstitutions;strengthenprimitiveinnovation,integratedinnovationandre-innovationbydigestingandabsorbingimportedtechnologieswithindependentintellectualpropertyright-baseddevelopmentandapplicationatthecore;andadheretotheguidelineofcombining“bringin”with“goglobal”toactivelystartinternationalco-operationsandtomakefulluseofChineseandoverseasresourcesaswellasChineseandoverseasmarketsinordertoquickenthedevelopmentofChinasocialdevelopmentandselectanumberofimportantbio-industrialfieldsandproductswithgoodbasicconditions,maturetechnologies,ahugepotentialforgrowthandahighindustrialconnectiontoconstructiesplayingaguidingroleinformingindependentintellectualpropertyrights,racetocontrolacommandingpointininternati,throughcombinationofenterprises,universitiesandresearchinstitutions,effectiveimplementationmechanismsthatareorganizedbyenterprisesandjointheenterprises,especiallylargeenterprises,toestablishRDinstitutionsthroughrelevantfiscaltaxation,evementsintoproductiveforcesjointlywiththeinstitutionsofhigherlearningandthescientificresearchinstitutes,renovateorbuildanumberofstateengineeringlaboratoriesandstateengineeringresearchcentersandimprovetheengineeringandsystemintegrationofscientificresearchachievements.ByXiangAnbo,EnterpriseResearchInstituteofDRCResearchReportNo72,sMineralResourcesCharacterizedbyaRichAggregateyetaPer-capitaInadequacyBeingvastinterritory,Chinaisabigproducer,,Chinastot,ataper-capitacalculation,Chinasmineralresourcesonlyaccountfor58%oftheworldaverage,edby"ThreeMajoritiesandOneDifficulty",completecategorieswithunsatisfactorystructureandarelativelyconcentrate,,onlysuchmineralresourceswithtraditionaladvantagesastungsten,stibium,rare-earth,graphiteandmagnesite,seetheirper-capitadepositsexceedingtheworldaverage,whilethedepositsofthestrategicmineralresourcesthatareofvitalimportancetothenationaleconomyandthepeopleslivelihood,suchasiron,manganese,chromium,copper,aluminum,goldandsilver,,copperandaluminum,onlycometo1/6,1/6and1/9oftheworldaverage,,ofthe45sortsofkeymineralresources,onlythesupplyof23sortscanbeguaranteed,whilethesupplyof10sortshastobeguaranteedthroughimportsoveraprotractedperiodoftimeand5sortsdependmainlyonimportsasaresultofscarcity;andby2020,onlythesupplyof6sortscanbeguaranteed,sseveremineralconstraintsarereflectedbymorethan10sortsofmineralresources,suchasironore,bauxite,copperore,uranium,sylvite,nickelandmanganeseore,,copper,aluminum,leadandzincareallconstraintmineralsofChina,andcopperandaluminumrestrainChinasumptionofresourcesChinasindustrializationdriveisaprocessofindustria,Chinasuffersmoreres,ChinaisenteringeousconditionstobeusedbyChinatorealizeitsmechanization,electrization,electronizationandinformatizationsynchronically,relatedstudieshavepredictedthatby2020whenChinainitiallyrealizesitsindustrialization,Chinasper-capitaannualconsumptionofmineralresourceswillpossiblybelo,duetoChinaslargepopulation,,Chinawillstillincreaseitsconsumptionofmineralresource,thecoefficientofelastic,inordertoensureadevelopmentfornext20years,Chinawillneedatleast30billiontonsofironore,rs,thegrowthofdepositsofChinasmajormineralresourceshasbeenslowerthantheincreaseofmineralproducts,andtheincreaseofmineralproductsha,%%in2005,andfellduring2006and2008,yetwentupagaintoanall-timehighof62%in2006(withtheactiveandtimelyadjustmentofthedemandmadebyChineseenterprisesaccordingtopriceupsanddownsasareasonablefactor).IntermsoftheperiodofChinasindustrializationandinviewoftheinternationalexperience,foralongperiodoftime,thecontradictionsbetweenthesupplyanddemandofsomemajorandpillarmineralproductsinChinawillstillcontinuetoaggravate,andtheoverallimportdependencewillincreaseertheforeignresourcurcesofironore,bauxiteandcopperore,ChinamainlydependsonAustralia,Brazil,IndiaandSouthAfricaforironore,onAustralia,IndiaandJamaicaforbauxite,andonChile,Mongolia,candtraderelationswiththesecountriesaswellasitsinvestmentinresourceindustriesofthesecountries.DRCTaskForceonMacro-economicPerformanceFromJanuarythroughFebruarythisyear,%%respectively,yearonyear,,Chinawitnessedboththepressureofpreventinganoverhe,themacro-economicpoliciesshouldbeworkedoutinlinewiththeactualconditionsandaimedatcurbingasharppriceriseaswellasmaintainingthesteadygrowthofthenatsconsumerpricessinceJuly2006,thepricescontinuedtogoupsteeplyfromJanuarythroughFebruaryand,inparticular,thepricerisereachedthehighestmargininFebruarysinceMarch,,thepressureofpriceriseduringthefi,theretrenchmentpoliciesandtheslowdownoftheglobaleconomicgro,%sinthefirstquarterThecatastrophicsnowandicestormshittingsouthChinainthebeginningof2008notonlyincurredhugedirecteconomiclossesbutalso,(%constitutedbyfoodpricesinconsumerprices).,,intheconsumerpricerisefromJanuarythroughFebruary,,pigpriceswillremainhigh,yetthepricerisewillslowdownIn2007,%inChina,%intheconsumerpricerise,,stimulatedbymarketpricesandaidedbystatepolicies,%andth%.Atpresent,sandintensifiedfarming,theoutbreakofepidemics,thefactthatagoodnumberofpigletsdiedduetothesnowandicestormsandtheriseinfeedprices,itisestimatedthatthepigsupplywillremaintightforalongerperiodoftimewithintheyear,theporkpriceswillstillremainhigh,sediblevegetableoilimport,togetherwiththeoilmadefromimportedsoybeanandrapeseeds,hasaccountedforaround70%ofChina,theenthusiasmoftheChinesefarmersforsoybeangrowinghasbeenraised,,Americansoybeanoutputwitnessedadrasticreduction,resultinginanaggravationofthecontradictionsinglobaloilseedsupplyanddemand,nbyChinaoverrecentfouryearsandtherelativelystablegrainpriceshave,,,seeds,agriculturalfilm,dieselforagriculturaluse,mechanicalworkcostandemploymentcost,itisestimatedthatin2008thetotalcostforgrainproductionpermuwillreachRMB525yuan,anincreaseofbyabout50yuanover2007,anda10%,,thegrainpricesinChinaareobviouslylowerthanthoseonworldmarket,intheworldandtheshortageofglobalfoodsupplyhave,thegapbetweenChinesedo,thewholesalepriceofthehigh-qualitywheatonZhengzhouGrainWholesaleMarketremainedat1,660yuan/ton,being2,000yuanlowerthantheaverageFOBpriceoftheAmericanrubywinterwheatinthesameperiod(US$/ton,equivalenttoRMB3,/ton).InFebruary,thewholesalepriceofthepolishedlong-grainednon-glutinousriceinChinasmajorsalesterritorieswas2,493yuanperton,beingover1,400yuanlowerthantheCIFduty-paidprice(over3,900yuan/ton),theaveragepriceofChinasNortheastcornwas1,130yuan/ton,beingover1,eindrivingupChinesedomesticcommoditypricesWithChinasgrowingdependenceonworldmarketforoilandrawmaterials,in2007thepricesofthestapleproductssuchasironore,nonferrousmetalandcrudeoilrosebyawidemargin,drivingupthemarketpricesofrawmaterials,ardepreciation,thepricesofthepriceofthecrudeoilwillreachUS$—US$,therawmattheprocessingorproductionlinks,theex-factorypricesoftheindustrialproductswillstillrisebyasmallmargin,whichwilldriveupthepricesoftheindustrialconsumergoodsaswellasthehouseholdconsumerprices.RenXingzhou,,2008In2007,Chinasrealestatesectormaintainedarapidgrowth,withinvestmentinrealestatedevelopment,thenationwidecommercialhousinginvestmentandtheareaofsold,,%fromayearago,,theChineseCentralGovernmentenactedaseriesofmacro-regulationpoliciesandmeasures,whichplayedanevidentroleinregulatingtherealestatemarket.(1)Policiesofad,theStateAdministrationofTaxationpromulgatedtheCircularontheManagementoftheClearanceoftheL,clearanceoflandVATshouldbethoroughlycarriedoutamongcountrywiderealestateenterprisesfromFebruary1,,2007,theamountoflandusetaxincitiesandtownswouldtripletheamountasspecifiedinProv,thenewlyapprovedpolicy,whichstipulatesthatchargesforusingnewconstructionlandwoulddoublethepreviousamount,rofitsoftherealestatedevelopers.(2)Macro-regulationoverhousingconsumption:sBankofChinaandChinaBankingRegulatoryCommissionjointlypromulgatedtheCircularonStrengtheningtheManagementofCommercialRealEstateLoansonSeptember27,2007,prescribingthattheproportionofthedownpaymenttothetotalpriceofhousingwouldberaisedbyatleast40%forthoseloanapplicantswhohavealreadyusedloanstobuyaresiden,thePeoplesBankofChinaandChinaBankingRegulatoryCommissionagainjointlypromulgatedtheAdditionalCircularonStrengtheningtheManagementofCommercialRealEstateLoansinDecemberofthesameyear,makingitclearthatafamily(includingtheborrower,hisorherspouseandtheirminorchildren)wouldberegardedasoneborrowerwhenbanksdecidethenumberoftimesoftheborrowerapplyingforhousingloans,thusimprovingcommercialbankspracticeforjuvestmentpurposesandlowerthegrowthrateofhousingpricesbyincreasethecostofspeculationinrealestatemarketthroughcontainingbankl,bytakingeveryfamilyasabasicunittodecidethenumberoftimesoftheborrowerapplyingforhousingloans,thegovernmenthasstandardizedtheconditionsfortheimplementationofthepolicy.(3),theMinistryofLandandResourcesissuedtheCircularonAdjustmentoftheExaminingandApprovingProceduresfiedbytheOverallPlanningforLandUse,theimplementationbytheStateCouncilinexaminingandapprovinglandrequisitionandchangeofagriculturallandforotherpurposesinbatchesandinturnhasbeenchangedintotheimplementationbyprovincialpeoplesgovernmentsinsubmittingtheheuseofconstructionlandandtherelevantresponsibilitypreviouslywhollybelongedtothecentralgovernmenthavenowbeengiventoprovincialgovernments,whichhassteppeduptheresponsibilityofprovincialgovernmentsforverifyingtheuseofconstructionlandandstrengthenedtheresponsibilityoflocalgovernments.InAugust,fiveministriesandcommissionsundertheStateCouncilincludingtheMinistryofLandandResources,MinistryofFinanceandMinistryofConstructionjointlyissuedtheCircularonOverhaulingtheTransferoftheRightforUseofState-ownedLandanddecidedtospendhalfayearstimetocarryoutanationwideinspectiononthetransferoftherightforuseofstate-ownedland,tar,theMinistryofLandandResourcespromulgatedtheRegulationsontheTransferoftheRightforUsingState-ownedConstructionLandthroughAuction,demandingthatfromNovember1,2007,theassigneemustpaythetotalamountofpriceforthewholepieceofl,amongallurbanconstructionlandreportedtotheStateCouncilforexaminationandapprovalin2007,%.InDecember,theMinistryofLandandResources,MinistryofFinanceandthePeoplesBankofChinajointlypromulgatedtheMeasuresonManagementofLandReserves,rigorouslystipulatingthetermsandconditionsforlandreserveagenciestoapplyforloansandmortgageloans,thelimitofthentralGovernmenttofur,improvingthelandmarketandpromotingthefrugalandintensiveuseofland,(4),theMinistryofConstructionandthePeoplesBankofChinajointlypromulgatedtheCircularonStrengtheningtheManagementofRealEstateBrokerageandImprovingtheManagementofTransactionClearanceAccounts,stipulatingthattherealestatebrokersortransactionguarantorsmustopentransactionclearancedepositaccountsforthestorageandtransferofthestockhousingclearancefunds,andthatthetransfer,theMinistryofConstruction,jointlywithsixotherministriesandcommissionssuchastheMinistryofLandandResources,MinistryofFinance,StateAdministrationofTaxation,NationalDevelopmentandReformCommissionandtheNationalAuditOffice,conductedanoverhauloftherealestatemarketorder,aimedatenhancingthesupervisionovertherealestatemarket,exercisingauditandexaminationoftherealestatedevelopmententerprises,andcrackingdownonillegalpracticesinrealestatedevelopment,Theimplementedpoliciesandinspectionwereaimedatfurtherstraighteningouttherealestatemarketorder,regulatingtheactivitiesofdevelopersandintermediariesintherealestatemarketandimprovingthemarketenvironment.(5),theMinistryofCommerceissuedtheGuidanceonNationwideworkofUtilizingForeignInvestmentin2007,demandingthateffectivemeasuresshouldbeadoptedtostrictlyrestrictforeigninvestmentfromenteringChina,theMinistryofCommerceandtheStateAdministrationofForeignExchangejointlypromulgatedtheCircularonFurtherStrengtheningandImprovingtheExamination,ApprovalandSupervisionofForeignDirectInvestmentinChinasRealEstateSector,stipulatingthatanyforeigninvestmentintheChinesedomesticrealestatesectorshallgothroughexaminationandapprovalandthattheestablishmentofanyforeignrealestatecompaniesexaminedandapprovedbylocalauthoritiesiountsofforeignhotmoneyfromflowingintoChinasrealestatemarketandproducingnegativeimpact,sothatthegapbetweensupplyanddemandonrealestatemarketcanbereduced.20108月通过ISO9001:2000国际质量管理。

    我公司以LinZeyanLiuLihuiStandardsforidentifyingsci-techinnovationteamsareasigionofidentification,selection,sponsoring,nofsci-techinnovationactivitiesandasignificantmeasureformanagingsci-techinnovation,itisnotonlyrelatedtotheevaluationofindividualsci-techinnovationteams,butisalsoconnectedwiththeconstructionofsci-,inlinewiththetrendofsci-techdevelopment,teamswork-basedscientificinnovationhasbecomethemainstreamofsci-techresearchin,theevaluation,identificationandcultivationofsci-techinnovationteams,,explorationoffeatures,managementmechanismanvationtoteamsinnovation,formulatecriteriaforidentifyingsci-techinnovationteamsthroughpositivestudy,andputforwardpoliciesandrecommendationswithrespecttoidentification,establishment,sSci-techinnovationteamscanbedefinedas"asci-techresearchgroupconsistingofteamsleadersandacertainnumberofsci-techpersonnel,inwhichallmembersmakecreativeachievementswithindependentintellectualrightsthroughlabordivisionandcooperation,undertheguidanceofcommongoalsofsci-techresearchanddevelopment."Takingtheformofteamsmanagement,thetypicalfeaturesofsci-techinnovationteamscanbesummarizedas(1)researchorientationwithdistinctivefeatures,definiteresearchgoalsandgoodsocialreputation;(2)complementaryadvantagesbetweenmembers;(3)mutualrespectandtrustsothatacademicdemocracyandexcellentacademicethicscanbesufficientlyupheld;(4)teamleadershaveexcellentstrategicvisionandcoordinationcapabilities,servingasthemodelforteammemberstofacilitateharmoniousandorderlyoperationofthewholeteams;and(5)capableofproducinginnovationachievementsonsustainablebasis,sinChinaIntheprocessofestablishingsci-techinnovationteamsbysomedomesticauthoritativeagencies,identificationstandardsprimarilyfocusonacademicstatusofteamleaders,innovationofresearchdirectionandinnovativeachievements(Table1).Meanwhile,severalspecialrequirementsareputforwardaccordingtothefeaturesofindividualteamsonthebasis,theNationalNaturalScienceFoundationofChinahasoutlinedspecificrequirementsforeducationalbackgroundsandprofessionaltitlesofteammembers,whiletheMinistryofEducationandtheChineseAcademyofScienceshavemappedbydomesticscientificresearchmanagementorgansandagenciesofvarioustypescanbesummarizedastwocategories,firstly,achievement-basedstandardsforidentification,vationteams,mainlyincludingacademicpapersandworks,patentsofinventions,significantsci-techprojectsparticipatedinandawardsofvarioustypes(includingadmissiontotalentsupportprogram);secondly,circumstantialstandardsforidentification,,researchplatformsandknowledgestorageofsci-techinnovationteams,mainlyincludingtalentstructureandknowledgestructureofteams,scientificresearchinfrastructureandexperimentalcapabilitiesandresearchfees(fairlyprevalentinsomegrass-rootssci-techteams).,fromtheperspectiveofprocessofsci-techinnovationactivities,theabovetwostaticidentificationstandardscannotmeett,someinstitutionsofhigherlearningandscientificresearchagenciesoftenorganizeirrelevantresearchpersonnellackingcooperationbasistoformtemporarysci-techinnovationteamstoapplyforfundsnecessaryforstaticindicators,causi,intheprocessofpre-selectionofexcellentsci-techinnovationteams,dynamicfactorsshallalsobeconsideredinadditiontoinspectionofsuchstaticindicatorsasexistinginnovativecapabilitiesandbasisofsci-techteams,ourDomesticAuthoritativeAgencies、新濠影汇体育ios下载苹果用户至上金龙滚球官网ByZhangJunkuoHouYongzhi,DepartmentofDevelopmentStrategyandRegionalEconomy,DevelopmentResearchCenter(DRC)ResearchReportNo036,odeThecharacterandfeaturesofapropermodeofdevelopmentarechangeableandarehighl,,industrializationandurbanizationhavedifferentprimarytasksandalsodifferentimpetuses,,intheprimarystageofindustrialization,accelerateddevelopmentisgenerallytheprimarytaskandincreasedmaterialca,however,betterdevelopmentisgenerallytheprimarytaskandtechnologicalinnovationandhumancapi,themodeofdevelopmentwearetryingtoshapeshouldbeconsistentwiththeprocessofChinasindustrializationandurbanizationandinconformitywiththeinternalandexternalenvironmentsofChina,itshouldbeamodeofdevelopmentthatiscomprehensive,coordinated,highlyefficient,universallybeneficial,,Chinasmodeofeconomicdevelopmentisfraughtwithprominentcontradictionsandproblems,whichhaveseriouslyaffectedthesteadyperformanceoftheeconomyatthemomentandalsoconst,,llyrestrained,thechangeofth,wemustconsiderbothnecesssassociatedwiththemodeofdevelopmentandalsothefactorsandtheirintensityaffectingthechangeofthemodeofdevelopment,webelievethatasu,Chinamustemphasizekeyareasandfocusontheeliminationofthep,itshouldestablishsystemsandmechanismstosupportscientificdevelop,theprominentcontradictionsassociatedwiththemodeofdevelopmentcanbevisiblyeased,andthemodeofdevelopmentwillbecomemorecompatiblewithChinasnationalcondit,ChinashouldfurtherimprovesystemsandmechanismssoastofundamentallyeliminatethesystemandpolicyfactorsthatimpedescientificdevelopmentandshouldformamodeofeconomicdevelopmentinconformitywithChina,coordinated,highlyefficient,universallybeneficial,(1),Chinasmodernizationshouldbeonethatfeaturescomprehensivedevelopment,includinghumandevelopment,insmprehensiveprogressineconomicconstruction,politicalconstruction,culturalconstruction,socialconstructionandecologicalconstruction.(2)ay,theeconomyandcoordinatethedevelopmentbetweeneconomyandsocietyandbetweeneconomyandnature.(3)sbasicnationalconditionsthatitspercapitanaturalendo,itmustworkhardtoboosttheutilizationefficiencyofnaturalresources,,thenewmodeofdevelopmentmusthelpoptimizetheallocationofresourcesandfactorsbetweendifferentsectorsandregionsandbetweenurbanandruralareassoastoenhancetheefficiencyofresourceallocation.(4)richfirstthroughhonestlaborandlegaloperationfordecades,allowingalsnewexpectations,butalsoaninevitablerequirementtopromoteharmoniouscoexistencebetweenvarioussocialclasses,expanddomesticdemand,opmentfruit.(5)enorth-southdevelopmentgapintheworldtodayisnotmainlybecausethecountriesinthenor,itismainlybecausethecountriesinthenorthhasmaintainedeconomicgrowthforoveracentury,whilethoseinthesouthhavefailedtoachievesusta,theChinesepeoplehavehadenoughtoeatandweaourcesandtheenvironmentandthatdevelopmentshouldacquirelastingimpetusthroughcontinuoustechnologicaladvanceandinnovation.(6),,sdhtofthechangestotheinternalandexternalconditionsandtotheenvironment.ChenXiaohongChenJinliang,,2008Theinnovationofindustrialchainsisakindofinnovationcreatedbyenterprisegroups,thatis,theenterprisegroupsthatmakeuptheindustrialchains,bymeansofinteractionanddemandincentiveorsupplyincentive,successivelyorjointlybringoutnewproductsorproductcombinationsbearingenhancementofthecompetitiveedgeofChina:’sDiamondModel,thefactorsaffectingtheinnovationofindustrialchainsmainlyincludeindustrialbasis,market,productionfactors,,someofthef,afairlyfavorableorganizationalbasisforindustrialtechnologiesandeconomiesaswellasagoodfoundationfordevelopment,butlacksnewtechnologiesandmanagementorganizationsandhaslittleknowledge,,beingshortoffundsinthelongrun,hasseenaquiteinadequateknowledgeaccumulationinitsindust,theChinesedomes,,thereexistsashortageofhigh-qualitytalentedpeople,andChina’sabisaswellasanumberofexcellententrepreneurs,whicharethemostimpsscapableofdevelopinghightechnologies,acquiringandassessingstrategicinformationandexercisingorganizationandmanagementandtha,theChinesegovernmenthaslaiddownthestatestrategyforinnovationanddevelopmentandformu,thegovernmentstillneedstoenrichitsexperienceandimproveitspolicyef,Chinahasaccumulatednewexperiencesininnovationofindustrialchains,,twobasicformsareadoptedininnovationmaking:innovationsmadethroughtheco-operationbetweengovrieswiththeset-upcostunsolved,thedevelo,theindustriesrequiringmorepolicysupportfromthegovernmentaremainlythosetechnology-intensiveorknowledge-basedindustriesthatrequirehugeinvestmentandsethighstandardsformarketaccessaswellasthosewidelyopenindustrieswiththeset-upcostunsolvedwherethereismuchdifferenceincomprehensivecapacityandtechnicalcompetencebetweenChineseandforeignenterprises(Table1).Afterthestrengthhasbeenenhanced,those,ChinaMobileandHuaweihaverealizedtheupgradingofChinaMobilenetworkbyjointlydevelopingthetechnicallycomplicatedIPnetworkwithhugeinvestment,thusmakingHuaweioneoftheworldbytheChinesegovernment,thespecificcharacteristicsandtheroadstakenbyChinaforitsdevelopmenthavemadesomepeopletobeskepticalaboutandevenworryaboutwhataroletheChinesegovernmentcouldperprisesofdevelopedcountries;itisimperativeforChinatoprovidebackingfortheenterprisestodevelopthemselvesandcreateinnovationswithresourcesor"rentchances"(or"performance-basedrent")suppliedbythegovernment,butthereexistsariskthattherelationshipbetweenthegovernmentandtheenterprisesmig"pathdependence",Chinasreformanddevelopment,proceedingfromthenationalconditions,arecharacterizedby"extra-systematicreformanddevelopment"whichstimulatethe"systematicreformanddevelopment"es——AnalysisofEconomicPerformanceintheFirstHalfof2010andProspectsfortheWholeYearDRCTaskForceonAnalysisofEconomicPerformanceInthefirsthalfof2010,,thepriceriseremainedatareasonablelevel,theriskofassetbubblewasreducedandtheeconomicperform,undertheimpactoftheEuropeansovereigndebtcrisis,therecoveryoftheworldeconomyhassloweddownanditislikelythatdomesticinvestmentcoul,inthelatterhalfoftheyear,themacro-controlpolicyshouldbefocusedonenforcingsteadymicro-adjustments,andtheorientationandflexibilityofthepolicyshouldbeenhancedonthebasisofmaintainingthesuccessesachievedinthefirsthalfoftheyearinpreventingthebubbleeconomyandholdingtheinflationinchecktoalleviatecontradictionsandrisksandtograduallyrealizethestabletransitionoftheeconomicpolicyfromacrisis-fightingonetoaconventionalone,soasincethebeginningof2010,withanumberofmacro-controlmeasuresbeingimplemented,thedynamicalstructurefortheeconomicgrowthhasbeenimproved,theriskofassetbubblehasbeenreducedconsiderablyandtheeconomicperformancehasonthewholepresentedapatternof"highgrowthandlowprices".alstageofcombatingthefinancialcrisis,,consumptionturninthepreviousyimulusplan,,thegovernment-ledinvestmentfellgraduallyandthemar,2009,ofthefixedassetinvestment,%,%%fromJanuarythroughMayof2009,%,theexportvalueallregisteredlessthan90billionUSdollarsineachmonth,withthegrowthdecliningbyanaccumulativetotalofmorethan20%.Nevertheless,exportvalu,,%fromayearago,and,positiveresultshavebeenachievedasaresultofthe,suchasautomobiles,homeelectricalappliancesandtourism,theconsumptiondemandhasshownasteadilygrowingmomentum,rketunveiledbytheStateCouncilhaveloomedupgradually,,thedecreaseeanegativeg,adjustmentshavebe%sincethebeginningoftheyearandtheShanghaiandShenzhen300hasdroppedbyanaccumulativetotalof29%.Theevaluationlevelonthestockmarketshasremained,growthofmoneycredithasbeencont,withtheresumptionoftheelasticitymechanismofexchangerates,thepressureofmoneyinputarisingfromfundsoutstandingforforeignexchangehasbeenalleviated,alsobeneficialtosomeextenttocontainingtheformationofthebubbleeconomy.、DVORChenQingtaiByChenQingtai,DevelopmentResearchCenter(DRC)ResearchReportNo94,2009Underthetremendouspressureofenergyenvironment,theautoindustryhnologies,the"autoelectrificationtechnology",andthetechnologicalrevolutionbeenunprecedentedinspeed,intensityandcoordinationthattheyhaveevolvedintoa,howtoseizethishistoricopportunitywithunderstanding,policyandactionwillhaveimpactsonChinarissuethatconcernsacountrysvigorouspromotionof"plug-invehicle"shortlyafterhetookofficewasastrategicdecision,basedontheresultandprospectoftechnologicaldevelopmentanddesignedtoreducethedependencyonforeignoil,whichhaschangedAmericaspass,,oilaccountsfor40%ofworldenergyconsumptionand90%ly,whichresultedinv,thepopulationofthenewindustrializingcountries,includingChinaandIndia,ventualdepletionofoilresourceswillbringtheageofcheapoiltoad,thosecountrieswithalatestartinsautoindustryisprosperinginbothproductionandsales,,butitsdependencyonimportedoilroseto25%ssecondlargestoilconsumerandthirdlargestoilimporterin2003,%,Chinasene,therapidgrowthofoilimport,thehighoilpricesandthepollutionarisingfromenergyproductionandconsumptionhaveallexposedChinato,inreducingdependencyonforeignoilandcuttinggreenhousegasemission,China,andcangreatlyeaseChinaspressurefromenergysecurityandenvironmentalprotectioninthecourseofindustrialization,,Chinashouldregardnewenergyrevolutionasamajorstrategyandvehicleelectrificationasahistoricopportunitytoreexaminethesituationofnew-energyvehiclesandthestateautoenergystrategybyproceedingfromnationalenergysecuri,the"autodream"present,Chinaisamajorauto-producingcountry,ovide,dozensofinstitutionsengagedinproduction,academicsandresearchinstitutionswereinvol"threevertical"vehiclemodels,namelypureelectricvehicles,oil-electrichybridvehiclesandfuelcellvehicles,"threehorizontal"generictechnologies,namelymulti-energypowersystem,drivemotoranditscontrolsystem,andpowercellanditsmanagementsystem,andnew-energyvehiclesbasedon"vehiclepowerelectrification".Inthisrace,Chinawasbasicallyonthesame"startline"withothercountries,forthefirsttimeinthecountryzeroemission,itshouldbecomethemaindirectionofChinaeanditsmainautoenterpriwertechnologiesan,Chinaen,Chinasdomestic-developednew-energyvehiclesmadethelargestapplicationtestintheworld,"PlanfortheRejuvenationoftheAutoIndustry"andthe"PilotProjectforThousandVehiclesin10Cities"hange-overtochangeitspassivepositionofexcessdependencyonforeigntechnologies,whichwillinfluencethefuture,isbothafineopportunityandagravechallengetous.ZhangChenghui,ChenDaofu,(1)OpeningpolicyonmarketaccesstoforeigninstitutionsWhenjoiningtheWorldTradeOrganization(WTO),Chinamadecommitmentsinfiveareasincludingformofincorporation,geographicscope,businessscope,nstitutionsinChinaintheformofjoint-venturecompaniesbutwouldnotbeallowedtohavemorethan50%equityholding;foreignnon-lifeinsurancecompanieswouldbeallowedtoestablishbranches,joint-venturecompaniesandwholly-ownedsubsidiarycompanies.—Thegeographicrestriction,whichhadlimitedforeigninsurancecompaniestoShanghai,Guangzhou,Dalian,ShenzhenandFushanbeforeChinasWTOaccession,,foreigninsurancecompanieswouldbeallowedtoestablishsubsidiariesinanypartofChina.—Withregardtobusinessscope,foreignlifeinsurancecompanies,whichhadbeenlimitedtooperatinglifeinsurancebusinessforforeignersandforChinesewhopersonallypaidpremiums,wouldbeallowedtoprovidepersonallifeinsuranceservice,healthinsurance,groupinsuranceandpension/,whichhadbeenlimitedtooperatingpropertyinsurancebusinessforoverseasenterprisesandoperatingpropertyinsuranceandrelatedliabilityinsurance,creditinsurance,masterpolicyandmajorcommercialinsuranceforforeign-investedenterprisesinChina,wouldbeallowedtooperateallinsurancebusinessesexceptmandatoryinsurancelines(third-partyliabilityinsuranceformotorvehiclesandliabilityinsuranceforthedriversandcarriersofcommercialtransportvehicles).—Foreignreinsurancecompanieswouldbesubjecttoneithertherestrictionontheformofincorporationnortherestrictionongeographiclocationandtherestrictiononthenumberofbusinesslicenses.—Withregardtotheconditionsofincorporation,foreigninsuranceinstitu$200millionintotalassets,higherthanthe10-million-yuanpaid-upcapitalrequiredforaChinesecompany.—Withregardtothequalificationofforeignshareholders,theywouldhavetomeettherequirementsoftotalassetsandbusinesshistory(ashareholdermusthaveoperatedinsurancebusinessformorethan30years,itstotalassetsattheendoftheyearbeforeincorporationapplicationshouldnotbelessthanUS$5billion,andtheapplicanthashadarepresentativeofficeinChinaformorethantwoyears).TheinsuranceindustryhasthesamerequirementforforeigncapitalparticipationinChineseinsurancecompaniesasthebankingindustrydoes,namelytheinvestmentinaChinesefinancialinstitutionbyasingleoverseasfinancialinstitutionshouldnotexceed20%andthetotalshareholdingbyforeigncapitalshouldnotexceed25%.—The20%mandatorycedingtoaChinesereinsurancecompanyatthetimewhenChinajoinedtheWTOwouldbelifted.(2)OpeningpolicyonthecontrolofoperationalactivitiesofinsurancecompaniesWithregardtothecontrolovertheoperationalactivitiesofinsurancecompanies,foreigncompaniesarecurre:—,thebasictermsandpremiumratesofmajorcommercialieterms,ndapprovingthetermsandpremiumratesofmandatoryinsurance,guaranteedinsurancewithaperiodofmorethanoneyear,,%orlower.—,treasurybondsandfinancialbonds,thecommissionalsoallowedinsurancefundstoinvestincorporatebonds,securitiesinvestmentfundsanddirectlyinvestinstockmarkets,,itraisedtheratioofinvestinginsuranceassetsinstockmarketsfrom5%to10%ofthetotalassets,allowedinsurancecompaniestouse15%oftheirtotalassetsforoverseasinvestment,andexpandedthescopeofoverseasinvestmentfromthefixed-earningcategorytoshares,,thecommissionestablishedarelativelyhighthresholdforhigh-riskinvestmentandencouragedsmall-andmedium-sizedinsurancecompaniestocarryoutentrustedinvestmentthrought,mostsmall-andmedium-sizedinsurancecompanieshavenoqualificationfordirectstockinvestmentexceptnineChinese-investedinsuranceassetsmanagementcompaniesandthespecially-approvedAssetManagementCenterofChinaRegionofAmericanInternationalAssuranceCo.,,aninsurancecompanymusthaveatleast10billionyuanintotalassetsandthereforesmall-andmedium-sizedinsurancecompanies,bothChineseandforeign,aredifficulttoacquirethisqualification.—,ChinaInsuranceRegulatoryCommissionpromulgatedtheInterimRegulationsontheAdministrationoftheMinimumSolvencyandRegulatoryIndicatorsofInsuranceCompanies,thusbeginninganexperimentonsolvencyregulation,whichusedtherelativelysimple,EU-typefixedratiomodel,(1)ForeigncapitalparticipationinChinasinsuranceindustryForeigncapitalparticipationinChinasinsuranceindustrywasmainlydoneinthreeforms:branchcompanies,Sino-foreignjoint-venturecompaniesandstrategicinvestors,someforeigncapitalenjoyedthedevelopmentfruitofChinasinsuranceindus,atotalof49foreigninsurancecompaniesfrom15countriesandregionsacrosstheworldhadestablishedatotalof161businessinstitutionsinChina(includingthoseunderpreparation).Table1showsthenumbersofChineseandforeigninsurancecompaniesformallyoperatinginChinasinsurancemarketduringthe2004~%ginChinasInsuranceMarketByShiYaodong,,sfasteconomicgrowth,theinternalandexternalenvironment,an"infinitelaborsupply"and"lowcostcompetition"rttheprocenurbanandruralareasaredeviatingfromtheaimsofdevelopment,,thetradeclimate,thefinancialsystemandotherdestabilizingfactorsaremakingitmoreandmoredifficultfortheChineseecono,itmustfindanewdevelopmentpath,formanewdevelopmentimpetus,fost"infinitelaborsupply"and"lowcostcompetition"Halfacenturyago,ArthurLewis,EconomistoneconomicgrowthanddevelopmentandNobelPrizewinner,introducedthetheoryofeconomicgrowthundertheconditionof"infinitelaborsupply".Henotedthatbeforeachievingmodernization,thedevelopingcountrieswiththetypicalcharacteristicsof"dualisteconomy"couldhaveaninfinitelaborsupplyatasubsistencewagelevelforaconsiderablylongtime,whichwouldhelprealizelong-termeconomicgrowth(ArthurLewis,1954).BecauseofChinaseconomicrestructuringandsystemevolutionthatbeganfromtheruralareas,thesurpluslaborthathadlongbeenconfinedtothelow-efficientagriculturalsectorhasbeengr"infinitesupply"oflaborandamodelof"lowcostcompetition"(LiuShijing,2005).Asaresult,Chinasuccessfullyachievedaneconomictakeoff,%,,however,thediversefactorsthatconstitutedtheChineseeconomicmodelof"lowcostcompetition"begantochangequietly:First,thelaborpriceintheeastcoastalregionbegantorisegraduallyduetotheco-actionofdiversefactors,includingthechangeinthelabormarketsupply-demandrelation,thegradualdisappearanceof"populationdividend",theriseinthecomparativeadvantageofag,laborshortagebegantospreadfromthehigh-qualifiedlabormarket(skilledworkers)totheordinarylabormarket(laborers),2008whichfurtherstandardizedthelegalrelationsbetweenlaborandmanagement,,thetightercontroloverthelanduseforconstructionpurpose,theintroductionofthesystemonbasicfarmlandprotectionandthereformofthelandtender,auctionandlistingsyst,,whilethedemandforimportedcrudeoil,ironoreandotherimportantresourcescontinuedtorisedrastically,,theirCIFpriceswentupsharplyyearafteryearandinturnpushedupthepricesoffinishedoilproducts,,themarketsupplyofcoal,finishedoilproducts,electricityandotherenergyproductshasexperiencedfrequentshortages(coalshortage,oilshortageandelectricityshortage)duetothecoactionofthefactorssuchastherisingdemands,theincreaseinupstreamcosts,theinsufficienttransportcapacities,theadjustmentofcontrolledprices,,thecostofenvironmentalprotection,longregardedasanexogenousvariableofeconomicgrowth,hasbeengradually"internalized"byenterprisesbecausethegovernmenthasstrengthenedintegratedenvironmentprotectionaccordingtolaw(suchascollectingdepositfundsforecologicalenvironmentcompensationandintensifyingpunishmentonenvironmentalviolations).Six,theacceleratedrevaluationoftheChinese,2005,theyuanhasrevaluatedbyatotalof20%.Thishasbroughtanextre,theChineseeconomyinevitablybidfarewelltotheperiodof"infinitelaborsupply"andtheeraof"lowcostcompetition"gesInrecentyears,theChineseeconomyhaspaidahighpriceintheformsofresourceconsumptionandenvironmentaldeteriorationformaintainingatwo-digitgrowthrate.—sgrossdomesticproduct(GDP)%oftheglobaltotal,itsshareofglobalconsumptionis31%forrawcoal,30%forironore,27%forsteelproducts,25%foraluminumoxideand40%stotalenergyconsumptionforper10,000-yuanGDPisthreetimestheaverageleveloftheworld,,,sdomesticsupplyofsomeimportantmineralresourceshasbeenonthedecline,withthecrudeoilsimportdependencyapproaching50%.—ngindustries,theChineseeconomyhasdemonstratedatypicalinverseEnvironmentalKuznetsCurve(EKC).Landdesertification,waterpollution,pasture,naturaldisasterandextreme-climaticincidentshavebecomemorefrequent,thegreenhousegasemissionhasbeenrisingrapidly,thecoal-basedenergystructurehasaggravatedthespreadofacidraincoverage,,thedegradationoftheenvironmentandthelifeofpovertyhavefailedtomoveoutoftheirviciouscircles.。

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